Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk breast cancer, but they can have their own risks and side effects. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are the only drugs that are approved in the US to help lower the risk of breast cancer, although for some women, drugs called aromatase inhibitors might be an option as well. This means that they act against (or block) estrogen (a female hormone) in some tissues of the body, but act like estrogen in others. Estrogen can fuel the growth of breast cancer cells. Tamoxifen can be taken whether or not you have gone through menopause, but raloxifene is only approved for post-menopausal women. Both of these drugs block estrogen in breast cells, which is why they can be useful in lowering breast cancer risk. To lower the risk of breast cancer, these drugs are taken for 5 years. The effect of these drugs on breast cancer risk has varied in different studies. When the results of all the studies are taken together, the overall reduction in risk for these drugs is about 40% (more than a third). These drugs lower the risk of both invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Although a medicine that cuts your risk by about 40% sounds like it must be a good thing, what it would really mean for you depends on how high your risk is in the first place (your baseline risk). Tamoxifen is a drug that has been in worldwide use for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer for over 30 years; it has been used in both the metastatic and adjuvant settings. Tamoxifen's approval for breast cancer risk reduction dates back to 1998, after results from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial, co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, showed a 49% reduction in the incidence of invasive, ER-positive breast cancer in high-risk women. Despite these positive findings, however, the public's attitude toward breast cancer chemoprevention remains ambivalent, and the toxicities associated with tamoxifen, particularly endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events, have hampered the drug's uptake by high-risk women who should benefit from its preventive effects. Among the strategies to overcome such obstacles to preventive tamoxifen, two novel and potentially safer modes of delivery of this agent are discussed in this paper. Low-dose tamoxifen, expected to confer fewer adverse events, is being investigated in both clinical biomarker-based trials and observational studies. A series of systemic biomarkers (including lipid and insulin-like growth factor levels) and tissue biomarkers (including Ki-67) are known to be favorably affected by conventional tamoxifen dosing and have been shown to be modulated in a direction consistent with a putative anti-cancer effect. These findings suggest possible beneficial clinical preventive effects by low-dose tamoxifen regimens and they are supported by observational studies. Side effects of valtrex Order cs cialis Xanax alprazolam Do viagra pills have a shelf life Dec 6, 2018. The TAM01 trial looked at whether a 5-mg/day dose of tamoxifen was effective in patients with breast intraepithelial neoplasia, or if the. Comparing this with historical data from a trial in which women received the standard dose of tamoxifen at 20 mg daily, 2 De Censi said the expected risk of endometrial cancer for this group would be 2.7 events and the risk for DVT or PE would be 2.4 events with the higher dose of the drug. Taking low-dose tamoxifen lowered the risk of recurrent or new breast cancer by 52 percent, the researchers reported. And the rates of side effects were similar between the two groups. 6, 2018 (Health Day News) -- Tamoxifen is considered a vital weapon in the fight against breast cancer, but many women who have to take the drug struggle with its significant side effects. De Censi said the rate of side effects -- such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, pain during intercourse and muscle pain -- was similar to the rate that occurred with a placebo pill. Now, new research shows that a lower dose of the hormone therapy helped prevent breast cancer from returning and guarded against new cancers in women who had high-risk breast tissue. The side effect rate for the low-dose therapy was significantly less than what previous research has shown with the standard 20 milligram (mg) dose of tamoxifen, he noted. On top of that, the lower dose -- just 5 milligrams daily -- came with fewer troubling side effects. In addition, the risk of serious side effects, such as blood clots and endometrial cancer, were similar to that of the placebo, and less than what typically occurs with the 20 mg dose, De Censi said. "Low-dose tamoxifen is as effective as the standard dose," said study author Dr. He is director of the medical oncology unit at the National Hospital E. Hormone therapy for breast cancer interferes with the growth of cancer cells in a few ways. One is by blocking the body from producing certain hormones. Another is by disrupting the effects of certain hormones on cancer cells, according to the American Cancer Society. In the case of tamoxifen, it works by binding to estrogen-receptors. Based on data from the phase III TAM-01 trial presented at the 41st Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS), investigators concluded that giving women diagnosed with breast intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) a lower dose of tamoxifen following surgery could be as effective and less toxic than the current standard dose. “We know tamoxifen is effective in prevention, but its toxicity…represents an important barrier for its use in a population at increased risk for breast cancer.” said Andrea De Censi, MD, director of the medical oncology unit at the National Hospital E. Ospedali Galliera–SC Oncologia Medica in Genoa, Italy, who presented the findings at the meeting. The current standard for tamoxifen therapy following surgical removal for this patient population is 20 mg daily for 5 years. However, patient compliance is often an issue due to its toxicity profile. “It is not clear what is the minimal active dose to illicit its biological and clinical effect,” De Censi said. Study investigators hypothesized that a lower dose of tamoxifen over a shorter duration could be equally as effective yet less toxic than the current stand dose. The annual risk of events was calculated to be 11.6 versus 23. patients, representing a 52% reduction in the cumulative risk of disease. The risk of contralateral breast cancer with low-dose tamoxifen was reduced by 75% when compared with placebo (HR 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.87; = .018), suggesting a strong preventative potential. Tamoxifen dosage for breast cancer Tamoxifen Drug Information, Lower-Dose Tamoxifen Effective in Preventing Breast Cancer. Xanax vs temazepam Oral low-dose tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention. An overview of the adjuvant tamoxifen clinical trials revealed that the efficacy of 20 mg/day of tamoxifen was equivalent to that of higher doses of the drug that is, 30 to 40 mg/day. Oral low dose and topical tamoxifen for breast cancer.. Lower-Dose Tamoxifen Works As Well As High-Dose. Nolvadex Tamoxifen Citrate Side Effects, Interactions, Warning.. For the treatment of breast cancer, carefully consider the risks and benefits of tamoxifen in patients with a history of thromboembolic events. Discuss the potential. Hormone therapy is also a treatment option for ER-positive breast cancer that has come back in the breast, chest wall, or nearby lymph nodes after treatment also called a locoregional recurrence. Two SERMs are approved to treat metastatic breast cancer, tamoxifen and toremifene. When preventing breast cancer with tamoxifen, dosing guidelines call for a starting dose of 20 mg a day. The dosage can range from 20 to 40 mg a day when used to treat the condition.